Autism Teaching Methods: Relationship Development Intervention
Relationship Development Intervention (RDI®) is a parent-based clinical treatment that tries to fix the social problems at the heart of autism, such as friendship skills, empathy and the desire to share personal experiences with others. Clinical psychologist Steven Gutstein developed RDI with his wife, Dr. Rachelle Sheely. Their approach takes into account the ways in which typically-developing children learn how to have emotional relationships beginning in infancy.
RDI tries to help children interact positively with other people, even without language. When children learn the value and joy of personal relationships, according to RDI, they will find it easier to learn language and social skills. RDI is based on the idea that children with autism missed some or many of the typical social development milestones as infants and toddlers. They can be given a "second chance" to learn these skills through play, "guided participation" and other activities, according to RDI.
Here's an example of RDI in action: "The adult holds a treat in one closed fist, displays both closed fists to the child, and then looks at the hand that holds the treat. The child is given repeated opportunities to 'find' the treat in the hand the adult looks at," according to the Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders (3rd ed.)
Early research of RDI's effectiveness published in 2005 indicates that RDI may be more effective that some other treatments. When compared to a control group with autism, children whose families participated in RDI showed greater improvement on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and more independence at school. Dr. Gutstein acknowledges that more research needs to be done of his method, which was first publicized in 2001.
Some families are using RDI in addition to ABA and other teaching methods. More than 5,000 families were receiving RDI in 2009, according to an article by Dr. Gutstein. A goal of the family-centered program is "normalization of family life for all members."
Considerations: RDI is more often used in homes than schools, though that is changing. RDI-certified consultants can be expensive. More research needs to be done on RDI to determine its effectiveness.
Dr. Gutstein presents an overview of RDI in his latest book, The RDI Book: Forging New Pathways for Autism, Asperger's and PDD with the Relationship Development Intervention Program. His other books include:
Autism Aspergers: Solving the Relationship Puzzle – A New Developmental Program that Opens the Door to Lifelong Social and Emotional Growth. Dr. Gutstein's first major RDI book explains the new treatment and includes examples of therapy and progress among his young clients.
Dr. Gutstein's RDIconnect web site lists more than 150 certified consultants, mostly in the U.S.
Relationship Development Intervention with Young Children: Social and Emotional Development Activities for Asperger Syndrome, Autism, PDD and NLD by Steven E. Gutstein and Rachelle Sheely. Their second major book explores RDI programs for youngsters on the autism spectrum or with related developmental problems. Another book, Relationship Development Intervention with Children, Adolescents and Adults, addresses therapy for older children and adults.